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how to linux

A Practical Guide to Identify Compute Express Link (CXL) Devices in Your Server

In this article, we will provide four methods for identifying CXL devices in your server and how to determine which CPU socket and NUMA node each CXL device is connected. We will use CXL memory expansion (CXL.mem) devices for this article. The server was running Ubuntu 22.04.2 (Jammy Jellyfish) with Kernel 6.3 and ‘cxl-cli ’ version 75 built from source code. Many of the procedures will work on Kernel versions 5.

Reading Time: 6 Minutes.

Published: May 2, 2023

linux how to

How To Install a Mainline Linux Kernel in Ubuntu

By default, Ubuntu systems run with the Ubuntu kernels provided by the Ubuntu repositories. To get unmodified upstream kernels that have new features or to confirm that upstream has fixed a specific issue, we often need to install the mainline Kernel. The mainline kernel is the most recent version of the Linux kernel released by the Linux Kernel Organization. It undergoes several stages of development, including merge windows, release candidates, and final releases.

Reading Time: 3 Minutes.

Published: April 21, 2023


An Introduction to Generative Prompt Engineeering

Introduction Over the past few years, there has been a significant explosion in the use and development of large language models (LLMs). An LLM is a language model consisting of a neural network with many parameters (commonly multi-billions of weights), trained on large quantities of text. Some of the most popular large language models are: GPT-3 (Generative Pretrained Transformer 3) – developed by OpenAI ; BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) – developed by Google; RoBERTa (Robustly Optimized BERT Approach) – developed by Facebook AI; T5 (Text-to-Text Transfer Transformer) – developed by Google.

Reading Time: 17 Minutes.

Published: March 29, 2023

cxl how-to linux

How To Map a CXL Endpoint to a CPU Socket in Linux

When working with CXL Type 3 Memory Expander endpoints, it’s nice to know which CPU Socket owns the root complex for the endpoint. This is very useful for memory tiering solutions where we want to keep the execution of application processes and threads ’local’ to the memory. CXL memory expanders appear in Linux as memory-only or cpu-less NUMA Nodes. For example, NUMA nodes 2 & 3 do not have any CPUs assigned to them.

Reading Time: 4 Minutes.

Published: December 27, 2022

cxl how-to

Linux NUMA Distances Explained

TL;DR: The memory latency distances between a node and itself is normalized to 10 (1.0x). Every other distance is scaled relative to that 10 base value. For example, the distance between NUMA Node 0 and 1 is 21 (2.1x), meaning if node 0 accesses memory on node 1 or vice versa, the access latency will be 2.1x more than for local memory. Introduction Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) is a multiprocessor model in which each processor is connected to dedicated memory but may access memory attached to other processors in the system.

Reading Time: 18 Minutes.

Published: November 3, 2022

how-to linux

Using Linux Kernel Memory Tiering

In this post, I’ll discuss what memory tiering is, why we need it, and how to use the memory tiering feature available in the mainline v5.15 Kernel. What is Memory Tiering? With the advent of various new memory types, some systems will have multiple types of memory, e.g. High Bandwidth Memory (HBM), DRAM, Persistent Memory (PMem), CXL and others. The Memory Storage hierarchy should be familiar to you. Memory Storage Hierarchy

Reading Time: 11 Minutes.

Published: June 10, 2022